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Sunday, April 1, 2012

GOLONGAN 15


Nitrogen
  • used in ammonia, NH3, production (Haber process). This is the greatest use of nitrogen. Ammonia is used for fertilizer production and to produce nitric acid (Ostwald process)
  • used by the electronics industry, which uses the gas as a blanketing medium during production of such components as transistors, diodes, etc.
  • used in annealing stainless steel and other steel mill products
  • used as a refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of food products and for transportation of foods
  • liquid nitrogen is used by the oil industry to build up pressure in wells to force crude oil upward
  • used as an intert atmosphere in tanks of explosive liquid storage tanks, both in ground-based tanks and in ships

Phosphorus
  • used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics, incendiary shells, smoke bombs, tracer bullets, etc.
  • fertilisers
  • phosphates are used in the production of special glasses, such as those used for sodium lamps
  • bone-ash, calcium phosphate, is used to produce fine chinaware and to produce monocalcium phosphate used in baking powder
  • important in the production of steels, phosphor bronze, and many other products
  • Na3PO4 is important as a cleaning agent, as a water softener, and for preventing boiler scale and corrosion of pipes and boiler tubes
  • pesticides

Arsenic
  • bronzing
  • pyrotechnics
  • hardening and improving the sphericity of shot
  • doping agent in solid-state devices such as transistors
  • the arsenide is used as a laser material to convert electricity directly into coherent light

Antimony
  • used in semiconductor technology for making infrared detectors, diodes, and Hall-effect devices
  • used in alloys with percentages ranging from 1 to 20 - greatly increases the hardness and mechanical strength of lead
  • batteries, antifriction alloys, type metal, small arms and tracer bullets, cable sheathing, and minor products use about half the metal produced
  • oxides, sulphides, sodium antimonate, and antimony trichloride are used in manufacturing flame-proofing compounds, paints, ceramic enamels, glass, and pottery.
  • tartar emetic (hydrated potassium antimonyltartate) is used in medicine

Bismuth
  • used in producing malleable irons
  • as a catalyst for making acrylic fibres
  • the metal is used as a thermocouple material (has highest negativy known)
  • carrier for uranium fuel in nuclear reactors
  • fire detection, extinguishing systems
  • cosmetics
  • medicine

Ununpentium



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