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Sunday, April 22, 2012

TTS Proses Fotosintesis

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TTS LARUTAN



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SEMOGA BERMANFAAT DAN SUKSES

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Friday, April 6, 2012

Basa Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari.



Orang sakit maag atau kelebihan asam lambung biasanya diobati dengan obat maag atau antacid. Antacid mengandung senyawa basa sehingga dapat mengurangi kelebihan asam lambung.

Beberapa basa dapat dilihat dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.
Seperti gambar berikut:

Contoh beberapa senyawa basa terdapat dalam produk tertera pada tabel berikut:


Semoga Bermanfaat.

Salam Blogger: 


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Asam Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari





Asam dan Basa banyak kita kenal dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, asam askorbat dikenal dengan nama Vitamin C.

Berikut ini beberapa contoh asam di sekitar kita:



Asam Sulfat diproduksi secara besar-besaran di pabrik karena banyak digunakansebagai bahan dasar pembuatan produk sehari-hari. seperti yang tertera di gambar berikut:


Gambar. Kegunaan dari Asam Sulfat (H2SO4)

Semoga Bermanfaat.
Salam Blogger
KIMIA SMK ASYIK






























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Sunday, April 1, 2012

TEORI ASAM BASA


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GOLONGAN 18


Helium
  • filling balloons (blimps) as it is a much safer gas than hydrogen
  • widely used as an inert gas shield for arc welding in countries where helium is cheaper than argon
  • protective gas in growing silicon and germanium crystals, and in titanium and zirconium production
  • cooling medium for nuclear reactors
  • a mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen is used as an artificial atmosphere for divers and others working under pressure
  • cryogenic applications
  • as a gas for supersonic wind tunnels
  • a protective gas for semiconductor materials
  • pressurizing liquid fuel rockets
 
Neon
  • used in making neon advertising signs, which accounts for its largest use
  • used to make high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, and TV tubes
  • neon and helium are used in making gas lasers
  • liquid neon is an economical cryogenic refrigerant. It has over 40 times more refrigerating capacity per unit volume than liquid helium and more than three times that of liquid hydrogen. It is compact, inert, and less expensive than helium when it meets refrigeration requirements
 
Argon
  • used in electric light bulbs and in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of about 3 mm, photo tubes, glow tubes, etc.
  • used as an inert gas shield for arc welding and cutting
  • blanket for the production of titanium and other reactive elements
  • protective atmosphere for growing silicon and germanium crystals ,lasers, light bulbs electric light bulbs and fluorescent tubes, photo tubes, glow tubes, welding, cutting, as a protective gas for other substances,
 
Krypton
  • used with argon as a low-pressure filling gas for fluorescent lights
  • used in some photographic flash lamps for high-speed photography, lamps, UV-laser spectral line used for international measurement of a metre
 
Xenon
  • used in making electron tubes, stroboscopic lamps, bactericidal lamps, and lamps used to excite ruby lasers for generating coherent light
  • used in the atomic energy field in bubble chambers, probes, and other applications where its high molecular weight is of value
  • potentially useful as a gas for ion engines
  • the perxenates are used in analytical chemistry as oxidizing agents
 
Radon
  • occasional therapeutic use
  • earthquake prediction
  • radiation therapy in hospitals
 
Ununoctium
  • Element 118 has no uses as only a very few atoms of this element have been identified.


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GOLONGAN 17


Fluorine
  • fluorine and its compounds are used in producing isotopically fractionated uranium (from UF6)
  • commercial fluorochemicals, including many well known high-temperature plastics
  • hydrofluoric acid is extensively used for etching the glass of light bulbs, etc.
  • fluorochloro hydrocarbons are used extensively in air conditioning and refrigeration
  • in small amounts, fluorides in water sources prevent tooth decay. A constituent of toothpaste for the same reason. Soluble fluoride in drinking water (2 ppm) may cause mottled enamel in teeth of children acquiring permanent teeth.

Chlorine
  • production of safe drinking water the world over. Even the smallest water supplies are now usually chlorinated
  • extensively used in the production of paper products, dye stuffs, textiles, petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products
  • most chlorine is used in the manufacture of chlorinated cleaning compounds, pulp bleaching, disinfectants, and textile processing
  • manufacture of chlorates, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride
  • used for the extraction of bromine
  • PVC pipe used to provide safe drinking water

Bromine
  • Much bromine output is used in the production of 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), a lead scavenger used in making petrol antiknock compounds. Lead in petrol, however, is presently being phased out in many countries. This will clearly affect future production of bromine
  • fumigants
  • flameproofing agents
  • water purification compounds
  • dyes
  • medicines
  • inorganic bromides (AgBr) used for photography
  • pesticides
  • water purification
  • used to make plastics flame retardant

Iodine
  • iodide, and thyroxin which contains iodine, are used internally in medicine. A solution of KI and iodine in alcohol is used as a disinfectant for external wounds.
  • silver iodide is used in photography
  • nutrient
  • added to table salt for nutrition {stops goitres, (Derbyshire neck)}
  • deep blue colour in a starch solution is a sign of the free element

Astatine
  • none

Ununseptium.

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GOLONGAN 16


Oxygen
  • oxy-acetylene welding
  • frequently used to aid respiration of patients in hospitals
  • used in making methanol and ethene oxide
  • rocket fuel oxidant
  • steel manufacture
  • ozone (O3) in the atmosphere is protection against the sun's ultraviolet rays
  • breathing
 
Sulfur
Most of the sulphur produced is used to produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4, the most important manufactured chemical in the world. Sulphuric acid has many uses, including for the synthesis of fertilisers and polyamides. It is used in batteries ("battery acid").
Sulphur is a component of black gunpowder (a mixture of potassium nitrate, KNO3, carbon, and sulhur). It is used in the vulcanisation of natural rubber, as a fungicide, and as a fumigant.
Sulphur compounds are used in the bleaching of dried fruits and for paper products.
 
Selenium
  • Selenium exhibits both photovoltaic action, where light is converted directly into electricity, and photoconductive action, where the electrical resistance decreases with increased illumination. These properties make selenium useful in the production of photocells and exposure meters for photographic use, as well as solar cells.
  • Selenium is also able to convert a.c. electricity to d.c., and is extensively used in rectifiers
  • the solid is a p-type semiconductor and is useful in electronic and solid-state applications
  • used in photocopying for reproducing and copying documents, letters, etc.
  • used by the glass industry to decolourise glass and to make ruby coloured glasses and enamels
  • photographic toner
  • additive for stainless steel
 
Tellurium
  • semiconductors
  • alloying with cast iron, copper and stainless steel
  • addition to lead to prevent corrosion
  • ceramics
  • tinting glass
 
Polonium
  • mixed or alloyed with beryllium to provide a source of neutrons
  • used for eliminating static charges in textile mills (β-sources are more common and less dangerous)
  • used on brushes for removing dust from photographic films
  • thermoelectric power in space satellites
  • source of neutrons

Ununhexium
 

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