Sunday, April 1, 2012


  • fuel (coal)
  • lubricant (graphite)
  • C-14 isotope used in archaeological dating
  • carbon compounds are important in many facets of the chemical industry

  • doped with boron, gallium, phosphorus, or arsenic, etc. to produce silicon for use in transistors, solar cells, rectifiers, and other electronic solid-state devices
  • silicones are important products of silicon. They are prepared by hydrolysing a silicon organic chloride, such as Me2SiCl2
  • silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass, a material with excellent mechanical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties
  • computer chips
  • lubricants
  • used to make concrete and bricks
  • used in medicine for silicone implants
  • doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements for use as a transistor element. Its application as a semiconductor provides the largest use for germanium
  • alloying agent
  • phosphor in fluorescent lamps
  • a catalyst
  • germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. Also for wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives.
  • possible chemotherapy applications?
  • use as a gamma-radiation detector
  • used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion or other chemical action (tin cans are made from tin coated steel)
  • alloying agent, important alloys incldue soft solder, type metal, fusible metal, pewter, bronze, bell metal, Babbitt metal, White metal, die casting alloy, and phosphor bronze
  • the chloride (SnCl2.H2O) is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing
  • tin salts sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lighting and for frost-free wind-shields
  • window glass is made by floating molten glass on molten tin (float glass) to produce a flat surface (Pilkington process)
  • a crystalline tin-niobium alloy is superconductive at very low temperatures. Such magnets, made of tin-niobium wire, weigh just a few pounds and produce magnetic fields that are comparable to that of a 100 ton electromagnet
  • trialkyl and triaryl tin compounds are biocides - there is concern over their environmental effects. Tributyltin is the active ingredient in a type of antifouling paint used on ships.
  • the metal and the dioxide are used in storage batteries
  • cable covering, plumbing, ammunition
  • manufacture of PbEt4 - an antiknock compound in petrol. Environmental concern with lead poisoning, (and cheaper unleaded petrol prices) is slowly resulting in less use of lead in petrol
  • the metal is very effective as a sound absorber
  • a radiation shield around X-ray equipment and nuclear reactors
  • used extensively in paints, although recently the use of lead in paints has been drastically curtailed to eliminate or reduce health hazards
  • the oxide is used in producing fine "crystal glass" and "flint glass" with a high refractive index for achromatic lenses
  • solder
  • used by the Romans for plumbing (the decline of the Roman empire is attributed to lead in the water supply!)
  • used to contain corrosive liquids
  • alloying
  • cable covering
  • ammunition
  • shield against X-rays
  • oxide used to produce crystal glass
  • insecticides
  • Element 114 has no uses as only a very few atoms of this element have been identified.

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